H CS 11

Industrialization and Progressivism (1877-1920)

Ignited by post-Civil War demand and fueled by technological advancements, large-scale industrialization began in the United States during the late 1800s. Growing industries enticed foreign immigration, fostered urbanization, gave rise to the American labor movement and developed the infrastructure that facilitated the settling of the West. A period of progressive reform emerged in response to political corruption and practices of big business.

Content Statement

11. The rise of industrialization led to a rapidly expanding workforce. Labor organizations grew amidst unregulated working conditions and violence toward supporters of organized labor.

Content Elaborations

The rise of industrialization in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries increased the demand for workers. With this demand, immigrants came from other countries and Americans migrated from other parts of the United States to take jobs in industrial centers.

As a result of the changing nature of work, some members of the working class formed labor organizations (e.g., American Railway Union, American Federation of Labor, Industrial Workers of the World, United Mine Workers of America) to protect their rights. They sought to address issues such as working conditions, wages and terms of employment.

Labor organizations also grew due to the violence toward supporters of organized labor (e.g., Great Railroad Strike, Haymarket Riot, Homestead Strike, Pullman Strike).

Expectations for Learning

Explain the major social and economic effects of industrialization and the influence of the growth of organized labor following Reconstruction in the United States.