Industrialization and Progressivism (1877-1920)
Ignited by post-Civil War demand and fueled by technological advancements, large-scale industrialization began in the
United States during the late 1800s. Growing industries enticed foreign immigration, fostered urbanization, gave rise to the American labor movement and developed the infrastructure that facilitated the settling of the West. A period of progressive reform emerged in response to political corruption and practices of big business.
13. Following Reconstruction, old political and social structures reemerged and racial discrimination was institutionalized.
The removal of federal troops from the South accompanied the end of Reconstruction and helped lead to the restoration of the Democratic Party’s control of state governments. With the redemption of the South, many reforms enacted by Reconstruction governments were repealed.
Racial discrimination was institutionalized with the passage of Jim Crow laws. These state laws and local ordinances included provisions to require racial segregation, prohibit miscegenation, limit ballot access and generally deprive African Americans of civil rights.
Advocates against racial discrimination challenged institutionalized racism through the courts. The U.S. Supreme Court affirmed segregation in the Plessy v. Ferguson decision.
The rise of the Ku Klux Klan and other nativist organizations brought increased violence against African Americans.
Expectations for Learning
Analyze the post-Reconstruction political and social developments that led to institutionalized racism in the United States.
Describe institutionalized racist practices in post- Reconstruction America.